Fire door introduction

Publish Time:

Mar 23,2022

Accredited laboratory designated by the Ministry of Economic Affairs of the Ministry of Fire, according to the new version of the national standard fire door GB_12955-2008, fire door fire resistance test method implemented from January 1, 2009, and obtained the verification registration certificate and authorization issued by the Ministry of Economic Affairs Standard Inspection Bureau Markers are called fire doors. The fire doors defined by the US NFPA and IBC specifications are "any combination of fire doors, door clips, hardware, and other accessories that can jointly provide a certain degree of fire protection at the opening."Function: fire prevention, heat insulation Place of use: evacuation stairwell, etc.

table of Contents

1. Function

2. Composition structure

3. Basis for classification

4. By material

5. Use function

6. By technology

7. Insulation

8. The main difference

9. Features

10. Technical requirements

11. Notes

12. Installation method

13. How to buy

14. Operation method

15. Main products

16. Development prospects

17. Technical parameters

18. Level

19. Standard

20. 3C certification


Fire door means that it can meet fire resistance stability, Doors that require integrity and thermal insulation. It is a fireproof partition with certain fire resistance, which is set in fire compartment, evacuation stairwell, vertical shaft, etc.

In addition to the role of ordinary doors, fire doors also have the effect of preventing the spread of fire and the spread of smoke, which can prevent the spread of fire for a certain period of time and ensure the evacuation of personnel.

Composition structure

Fire doors are generally located in the following locations.

(1) Close the evacuation stairs and lead to the walkway; close the elevator room and open the door to the front room and the front room to the walkway.

(2) Inspection doors for vertical shaft wells such as cable shafts, pipe shafts, smoke exhaust ducts and garbage passages.

(3) Divide the fire protection zone, control the fire wall and fire partition wall door set in the building area of ??the zone. When it is difficult to install firewalls or fire doors in buildings, fire shutter doors should be used instead, and water curtains must be used for protection.

(4) specifications (such as GB50016-2014 "Code for Fire Protection of Architectural Design") or design partition doors that specifically require fire and smoke prevention.

For example: the equipment room (cylinder room, foam station, etc.) attached to the fixed fire extinguishing device in the high-rise civil building, the partition wall door of the ventilation, air-conditioning machine room, etc. should use a Class A fire door; often there are people staying or more combustibles The door on the partition wall of the basement room should be a Class A fire door; due to restrictions, fuel oil and gas boilers, fuel oil immersed power transformers, high voltage capacitors and switches filled with fuel oil, etc. must be arranged in high-rise buildings. Class A fire doors shall be used for the doors on the partition walls of special rooms. There are also household doors with special requirements for fire protection, such as those for fire monitoring and command centers, archives rooms, valuables warehouses, etc. Class A or Class B fire doors are usually used. Fire-proof and anti-theft doors are often used for household doors of high-rise high-end residential buildings. GB 12955-2008 demand for fire resistance of fire doorsFire doors are an important part of fire fighting equipment and an important part of social fire protection. Fire doors should be equipped with fire door closers or set door closing devices that allow normally open fire doors to automatically close the door leaf when a fire occurs (special) Except for the use of parts, such as pipeline well doors, etc.). In other words, except for some special parts, such as pipeline well doors, which do not need to be installed with door closers, other parts need to be installed with fire door closers.

Basis for classification

There are many types of fire doors.

According to the material:

There are wood fire doors, steel fire doors, steel wood fire doors, other fire doors, etc.;Wooden fire doors: fire resistant timber doorsetsUsing incombustible wood or incombustible wood products as door frame, door frame and door panel.

Steel fire doors: fire resistant steel doorsetsThe door frame, door leaf frame and door leaf panel are made of steel material. If the door leaf is filled with material, it is filled with fireproof heat insulation material which is non-toxic and harmless to human body, and is equipped with fireproof hardware accessories to the door with certain fire resistance.

Steel wood fire doors: fire resistant timber doorsets with steel structureUse steel and incombustible wood materials or incombustible wood products to make door frames, door frame and door panels.

Other material fire resistant door sets: other material fire resistant door setsUse inorganic non-combustible materials other than steel, incombustible wood or incombustible wood products, or use steel, incombustible wood, incombustible wood products to make door frames, door frame and door panels. Fire-proof and heat-insulation material that is non-toxic and harmless to human body, and is equipped with doors with certain fire resistance performance composed of fire-proof hardware accessories.

Use function

There are access control fire doors, indoor fire doors, explosion-proof fire doors, quick-lock fire doors, fast fire doors in case of fire, etc.;By technology

There are electronic fire doors, multi-function fire doors with built-in fire door closers, etc.; is divided into normally closed fire doors and normally open fire doors according to the open state. Normally closed fire doors are generally composed of fire doors, door frames, door closers, sealing strips, etc. Double or multi-door normally closed fire doors are also equipped with sequencers. Normally closed fire doors usually do not require electrical professional to provide automatic control design, but there are also some special cases such as: normally closed fire doors on evacuation channels. When some large construction parties have anti-theft and other management requirements, they should be designed by the electrical professional. Potentially reduce potential safety hazards. For normally open fire doors, in addition to all accessories with normally closed fire doors, fire door release switches must also be added, and the electrical professional must provide automatic control design. It is usually applied to the evacuation channel with more people flow.

Insulation situation

fully insulated doorsets (Class A)

Fire doors that can meet the requirements of fire integrity and heat insulation at the same time.

Partially insulated doorsets (Class B)

Fire doors meeting the requirements of fire integrity and heat insulation within 0.50 h or more. Non-insulated fire doors (Class C) no insulated doorsetsFire doors that can meet the requirements of fire resistance integrity within the specified time.

The main difference

The difference between the anti-theft door and the fire door is that the main function of the anti-theft door is anti-pry sealing performance. Generally, the door cannot be opened without a key after the door is closed. The filler in the door panel is not a fireproof material. The anti-theft door must have the "FAM" logo, and refer to the general technical conditions of the anti-theft security door GB17565-2007. Although the fire door is also made of steel, the door panel is filled with fireproof material, and the thickness of the door steel plate also has different requirements. A steel door is an ordinary steel door. It also has a certain anti-theft function, but its anti-pry performance is relatively poor. The general street processing plants are of this type.

Only Shanghai and Chengdu have local standards for fireproof and anti-theft doors, and other places can generally only be called fire-proof entry doors, that is, they have reached the national fire-proof grade A or B fire door standards, (filled with fire door cores) Grade A and B standards Generally divided by the anti-combustion time. At the same time, it meets the anti-pry requirements in the following aspects:

1. Thickness of door frame is 1.5, and thickness of steel plate on both sides of door leaf is 0.8 2. The lock has the anti-pry function, that is, the lock body has both oblique bolts and square bolts, and has a quick opening function. It is the best for the twist type, but it is not allowed to install the world lock.

3. Both the lock and the cat's eye must have a fire detection report. Class B fire-resistant entry doors can be fitted with door collars, and Class A is not allowed.

4. At the time of acceptance, the merchant must provide a fire protection type approval certificate, fire detection report, and metal entry door test report. Fire detection report for locks and cat eyes.

5. The opening direction of the door leaf is the direction of rapid evacuation and cannot be opened inward.

Wood heat insulation fire door:

This standard specifies the product classification, specifications, technical requirements, test methods, inspection rules, sign packaging, transportation and storage of wooden thermal insulation fire doors. This standard applies to fire doors that use wood or wood products as door frames, door leaf frames, and door leaf panels.

The difference between electric fire door and ordinary fire door difference:

Emergency and statistical functions, the system can automatically display the physical location of the designated cardholder on the computer, which is convenient for timely contact.

In case of fire and other emergency situations, the electronically controlled fire door will automatically open for easy escape, and the entrance and exit can also be automatically opened; when illegal entry and exit occurs, it will automatically alarm;National standard for wooden heat insulation fire doorWooden heat insulation fire door refers to the wooden door that uses wood or wood products as door frame, door frame, door panel, and the door is filled with heat insulation material or uses wood or wood products as door frame and door leaf. Class A can also be installed on the door leaf as needed Above the composite fire-resistant glass and door leaf, there is a bright window composed of a door frame and Class A composite fire-resistant glass, and it is equipped with a fire-resistant hardware accessory to meet the fire resistance integrity and thermal insulation door.

Wooden heat insulation fire doors are divided into three categories of Class A, Class B, and Class C according to the fire resistance limit. The fire resistance requirements are 90min, 60min, and 30min, respectively. The wood used for making solid wood fire doors needs to be dried and flame-retardant. The water content should not be greater than 12%. When restricted by conditions, the moisture content of its production should not be greater than the local equilibrium moisture content.

Hardware fittings for wooden thermal insulation fire doors must be refractory hardware fittings. The main hardware fittings are: fireproof hinge (hinge), fireproof latch, fireproof door lock, fireproof sequencer and fireproof door closer, etc.

Fire resistance of wooden heat insulation fire door During the fire resistance performance test, the wood heat insulation fire door should be able to meet the conditions specified in the standard within the time required by its fire resistance.

① Integrity:

1. There is no flame continuously burning for more than 10s on the back fire surface; 2. If there are cracks, holes or other pores on the back fire surface without flames, the combustibles at a distance of 20mm~30mm from these pores cannot be ignited within 10s-30s; 3. The sample must not collapse.


The average temperature rise of the temperature measurement point on the solid wood fire door shall reach 140℃ or the temperature rise of any temperature measurement point shall reach 180℃.

When performing product consistency check on site, the following should be checked:

1. Whether the appearance of the product is consistent with the standard requirements; 2. Whether the product logo is consistent with the standard requirements; 3. Whether the product structure is consistent with the test report; 4. Whether the material of the product is consistent with the test report; 5. Whether the performance parameters of the product are consistent with the test report.


Fire door has the characteristics of smooth and smooth surface, beautiful appearance, flexible opening, strong and durable, easy to use, safe and reliable. There are many specifications for fire doors. In addition to the door opening size (GBJ2-73 "Building Unified Modular System") specified by the national building door and window opening unified modulus system, it can also be customized according to user requirements.

skills requirement

The wooden fire door is made of incombustible wood or incombustible wood products as the door frame, door frame, and door panel. If the door is filled with materials, it is filled with non-toxic and harmless fire insulation materials, and it is composed of fireproof hardware accessories. The door has certain fire resistance.

The lap size of the door leaf and the door frame should not be less than 12mm; the matching activity gap of the hinge side of the door leaf and the door frame should not be greater than the dimensional tolerances specified in the design drawings; the matching activity gap of the door leaf and the door frame with the lock side should not be greater than the design drawings The stipulated dimensional tolerance; the clearance between the door leaf and the upper frame should not be greater than 3mm; the gap between the doors of the double-leaf and multi-leaf doors should not be greater than 3mm; the clearance between the door leaf and the lower frame or the ground should not be greater than 9mm; The gap between the door frame and the door frame: the hinge surface of the door leaf and the door frame, the side with the lock, and the upper frame should not be more than 3mm; the level difference between the door leaf and the door frame: on the fire door opening, Tianjin telescopic The difference in plane height between the door frame and door leaf of the barcode reader should not be greater than 1mm.

Wooden fire door refers to a door made of wood or wood products to make the door frame, door frame, door panel, and the fire resistance limit reaches the national regulations. Some small deviations between wooden fire doors can not be wrong, maybe it is a small detail problem, it may not reach the national standard.

Use material

First compare the materials used, the structure of the fire door is simple, mainly composed of four parts: door closers, door panel materials (there are several types such as 06 and 08), door frame materials, and fire panel. Class A fire doors generally use good quality 08 materials. The normal service life is 5-8 years. The iron material of the door panels is thicker. For fire doors of the same thickness, the weight of class A fire doors is larger than that of class B fire doors.

Fire time

The fire time of the fire door is mainly determined by the fire board. In this respect, the fire board used for the Class A fire door is generally better than the fire board used for the Class B fire door, so the overall performance is stronger than the Class B fire door. In addition, Class A fire doors are especially suitable for those occasions that require fine grinding before plating, excellent vibration, mirror polishing of hand tools, mirror polishing of electric heating tubes, etc., such as vibration of various types of furniture hardware, cutting and polishing of hand tools, daily use Surface vibration of products, self-painted accessories, etc.

Another point of concern is that the materials with door frame function in Class A fire doors, because the specifications of the door frames can be flexibly customized according to the needs of customers, the size of the door opening is more convenient, labor-saving and time-saving.

The cost

Although from the perspective of procurement cost, Class A fire doors are higher than Class B fire doors, but from the perspective of comprehensive use cost, Class A fire doors are superior to Class B fire doors in many aspects. However, Class B fire doors also have the characteristics of low prices and also occupy a part of the low-end market.

It is difficult for a clever woman to cook without rice, and rice is divided into good rice and bad rice. Manufacturers refuse to use "good rice" and naturally cannot produce fire doors with reliable quality. This is worthy of consideration by Chinese enterprises.


There are many types of fire doors: glazed fire doors, stainless steel fire doors, and ordinary steel fire doors, but the installation method is basically the same. It depends on the situation on the site, and some common installation parameters must be paid attention to.

First, the installation of fire doors should be in accordance with the type of fire doors used, and a suitable installation method should be adopted.

Second, the door frame of the fire door can be fixed to the wall with expansion bolts, or iron pieces can be embedded at the opening of the wall when the wall is built, and it is welded to the door frame connection during installation